In peer-reviewed journals
1. Chiu HT, Huang JK, Kuo MT, Huang, JH (2019) Characterisation and successful modification of recycled PC/PBT blends. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers, in press
Abstract: Polycarbonate (PC)/polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) blends (CBs) represent a good compromise between the properties of PC and PBT and are among the most popular engineering plastics today. To evaluate the capability of recycled and reprocessed CBs, the physical and mechanical properties of 0 to 20 times reprocessed CBs were characterised, and an attempt was made to modify a 20-time reprocessed CB to reach ³85% functionality of a virgin CB. Generally, the thermal weight loss (30% at 300–450 °C and 40% at ~470 °C) of the CBs varied little with the reprocessing cycles, reflecting their high thermal stability. The increased melting index (from 18.7 to 92.0 g (10 min)-1) but decreased stress values (from 6.08 to 4.99 kgf mm-2), strains (from 79.0 to 29.1 %), impact strength (from 144 to 14.7 J m-1) and torque values (from 82 to 60 N m-1) with reprocessing cycles suggest that the CBs undergo thermal/mechanical decomposition when reprocessing and became thereafter stiffer. Satisfactory modification of the 20 times reprocessed CB succeeded simply via adding ~30% (w/w) virgin PC and PBT. Adding styrene maleic anhydride and a chain extender failed to improve the stress values of reprocessed CBs, probably due to their weak interaction with the PC and PBT molecules.
Keywords PC/PBT blends, reprocessing, recycling, modification, virgin PC and PBT
2. Chiu HT, Huang JK, Kuo MT, Huang, JH (2018) Characterisation of PC/ABS Blend during 20 Reprocessing cycles and Subsequent Functionality Recovery by Virgin Additives. Journal of Polymer Research, 25:124.
Abstract: PC/ABS blend (a.k.a CS by Dow Chemicals) is one of the most popular engineering plastics to date, frequently considered as a good alternative to PC or ABS. To estimate the potential to recycle and reprocess CS, we characterised the thermal, rheological and mechanical behaviour of CS reprocessed 0 to 20 times in real industrial facilities and, furthermore, unprecedentedly attempted to modify the 20-time reprocessed CS until its functionality within 15% deviation from the virgin CS. Consistent thermal weight loss (30% at 300-450oC and 40% at ~470oC) and Tg points (at ~100oC) of CS from various cycles of reprocessing reflected the associated high thermal stability. However, increased stress values (from 4.71 to 5.23 kgf mm-2) and melting index (from 40 to 66 g (10 min)-1) but decreased stain (from 27.2 to 11.7 %), impact strength (from 87.7 to 14.2 J m-1) and torque values (from 71 to 49 N m-1) suggested that CS underwent polymer chain breaks during reprocessing and became stiffer. Recovery of the 20-time reprocessed CS was achieved by adding ~30% (w/w) virgin PC and ABS together with 1.5% (w/w) of chain extender and 2% (w/w) of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) simultaneously. The study demonstrated the potential for recovering repeatedly reprocessed PC-based polymer blends and a new way of recycling polymer resource for environmental protection.
Keywords PC/ABS, reprocessing and recycling, modification, styrene maleic anhydride (SMA), chain extender
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