Plastic Recycling Additive

I. UN1500 BC Modification of Post Consumer Recycled PET Bottle 

1. Experimental and Objectives

1.1.

All PET materials used for compounding within this experiment is obtained from PET bottles collected in a waste treatment plant.

1.2.

Place 8.0 g of PCR (post consumer recycled) PET materials into the heating chamber at 250 °C. After pre-heating for 60 seconds, the PCR PET materials were pressed with a force of 7060 gf. Every 60 seconds, a small portion of samples were removed for melting index analysis. Line graphics were prepared according to the change of melting index measured every 60 seconds.

1.3.

The objective of this investigation is to reveal the changing melting index of PCR PET with the heating time. Accordingly, the hot melt viscosity stability and material uniformity of the PCR PET bottle can be revealed (the uniformity and difference of the molecular weight).

 

 

2. Results and Discussion

2.1.

Figure 1 shows the test result of PCR PET without any reagent addition with 10 replicates. The values of melting index were highly diverse among 10 replicates, reflecting the hot melting viscosity of PCR PET materials is very unstable, the uniformity of the material is very poor, and the molecular weight varies greatly. Thus, It means that the quality of PET materials recycled from waste treatment plants (garbage yard) is high diverse.

2.2.

Increasing addition of Union 1500BC, the hot melting viscosity of the PCR PET materials has become much more consistent (Fig. 2).

2.3.

As the heating time increases, the melting index underwent a sudden increase frequently (so called “viscosity reduction”). In comparison, the test group added with 1500BC has a relative mild increase of the melting index with time. This suggests by adding Union 1500BC may largely minimise the extent of viscosity decrease (Fig. 2).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Conclusion

Plastic materials whose viscosity does not change significantly with the increase in heating time are more conducive to processing. Accordingly, adding 1500BC may remarkably minimise the change of the viscosity of PCR PET materials, and improve the stability of PCR PET materials during further product processing.

Figure. 1. The changes of melting index of post consumer recycled (PCR) PET materials obtained from PET bottles collected in a waste treatment plant with heating time.

Figure. 2. The changes of melting index of post consumer recycled (PCR) PET materials after treatment with 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0% (w/w) of Union 1500BC additive with heating time.

II. UN1500 BC Enhancement of the Compatibility of PC and ABS

1. Experimental and Objectives

1.1.

To granulate with a twin-screw granulator the poorly compatible PC and ABS into PC/ABS blend. Thereafter, standard test pieces were produced using a 150-ton horizontal motor in order to examine its mechanical performance such as tensile, bending strength and impact resistance.

1.2.

This investigation aimed to evaluate whether 1500BC-PP can be used as a surface active agent (surfactant) to improve the compatibility between PC and ABS, which are usually badly compatible with each other, with a further objective to largely improve the mechanical properties of the PC/ABS blend.

​​​​​​​​​​2. Results and Discussion

2.1.

The performance of PC/ABS blend is determined by the compatibility of the 2 constituent polymeric materials. If well-compatible, the physical and mechanical performances of PC/ABS will lie between PC and ABS. If badly-compatible, PC/ABS will have mostly lower physical and mechanical performances than PC and ABS.  The function of the surface active agent is to enhance the compatibility between PC and ABS. Adding 1500BC-PP, the mechanical properties of the blend of PC and ABS can be largely elevated, meaning that 1500BC-PP can serve as the surface active agent to blend PC and ABS.

2.2.

The increased addition of 1500BC-PP has led to significant increases of the elongation rate and impact strength of PC/ABS blend. The impact strength of commercially available PC/ABS is usually 35~55 kg-cm/cm.

2.3.

The tensile strength, bending strength and bending elasticity of PC/ABS varied little or slightly increased with increasing addition of 1500BC-PP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Conclusion

According to the experimental results, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, bending strength and impact strength increased with the increased amount of 1500BC-PP added. Therefore, 1500BC-PP can be truly used as an surface active agent to improve the compatibility between PC and ABS.

Remarks

<1> Elongation test rate: 50mm/min

<2> Bending test rate: 13.6mm/min

<3> Impact test: pendulum weight: 1 kg; energy 5.02 J; swing arm length 300 mm; impact angle 135 degrees

III. UN1500 BC Modification Recycled PC/PBT without Preliminary Granulation 

1. Experimental and Objectives

1.1.

After mixing 100% recycled PC/PBT materials (leftovers and secondary materials) with 1100BC, 1200BC, and 1500BC-PP according to the TDS recommended dosage, they are directly injected with 125-180 tons of horizontal motors to make standard test pieces. Thereafter, the test pieces were taken for examining the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, bending strength, and impact strength.

1.2.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the mechanical properties of recycled PC/PBT materials (leftovers and secondary materials) by only adding modifier (1100BC, 1200BC and 1500BC-PP) without adding virgin PC/PBT materials and preliminary granulation.

Special Notice:

I.

In this experiment, recycled PC/PBT was exclusively used without any virgin PC/PBT materials. 

II.

In this experiment, the recycled PC/PBT material mixed with modifiers (1100BC, 1200BC, and 1500BC-PP), were directly injected into a 125-180 tons horizontally injection moulding.

III.

The screw design of the feed tube of the moulding machine cannot be considered as having the engineering ability of mixing and dispersing different materials. In most cases, modifiers together with the recycled materials must be granulated in advance through the tube to disperse the modifier evenly before injection moulding. This is a general inevitable standard procedure. Good dispersion (sufficient diffusion speed) is the absolute key factor for a successful modification.

​​​​​​​​​​2. Results and Discussion

2.1.

With the increase of 1100BC, 1200BC, and 1500BC-PP amount, the tensile strength, bending strength, and bending elastic modulus of the recycled PC/PBT showed decreasing trends.

2.2.

The impact strength of modified PC/PBT increased with increasing addition of 1100BC, 1200BC and 1500BC-PP

2.3.

The measured elongation rate could fluctuate due to the complex origins of the recycled materials.

2.4.

When singly adding modifier, only the impact strength of the recycled PC/PBT could be improved. The other mechanical properties i.e. elongation rate, tensile strength, bending strength, bending elastic modulus, showed mostly downward trends. If intending to improve the elongation rate, tensile strength, bending strength, bending elastic modulus and other properties of the recycled PC/PBT material, not only the modifier but also the new material must be added at the same time.

2.5.

The downward trend of tensile strength, bending strength, and bending elastic modulus is clearly inversely proportional to the amount of 1100BC, 1200BC, and 1500BC added. Also, the trend of impact strength improvement is directly proportional to the amount of 1100BC, 1200BC, and 1500BC added. Beside elongation rate, the deviations of all the other test values were quite small.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Conclusion

With the experimental results, we demonstrated clearly that 1100BC, 1200BC and 1500BC-PP can disperse evenly and efficiently during the injection moulding procedure. Therefore, granulating 1100BC, 1200BC and 1500BC-PP with the recycled materials in advance through the tube is no more essential.

Remarks

<1> Elongation test rate: 50 mm/min

<2> Bending test rate: 13.6 mm/min

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Donna Polymer

 
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Last update: 26.Nov.2020

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